My Git learning notes.
How to change most recent commit message
After we have added a local commit, we may find that we need to do some updates
before pushing to remote repo. We can use
git commit --amend to change last
--amend option, we can change not just commit message. Files in local
repo can also be updated. After using this option, last local commit will be
replaced with the new commit.
How to show changes for a specific file
Sometimes, we want to show the changes for a particular file across commits.
This can be achieved by
git log command:
git log -p <file_path>
-p option will show detailed diff info for the file.
A more complete and useful version is:
git log --stat -p --follow <file_path>
Meaning of options used:
--stat: show info about file changed, deletions and insertions.
--follow: show file change info before it was renamed (by default, file history before renaming is not shown).
To show only the latest five changes, we can use the
git log --stat -p --follow -n 5 <file_path>
A similar command is
git whatchanged -p <file_path>
The git-whatchanged command is similar to
git log and is kept for backward
compatibility. New users are encouraged to use
git log instead.
- Difference between git-log and git-whatchanged.
- git-whatchanged doc.
- See changes to a specific file.
- Git log doc.
How to set up editor for git commit
I am used to writing my commit message on the command line with
git commit -m "xxx"). This works well for short commit message. When we want
to write the detailed explanation for a change in commit message, it is better
to do it in a text editor, e.g., in Vim or Neovim.
There are basically two way to set up the editor.
- Set up the
export EDITOR="nvim" export VISUAL="$EDITOR"
- Set up the editor git uses via
git config --global core.editor "nvim"
After that, when you want to commit, just type
git commit in the command line.
Neovim will be opened with a file named
COMMIT_EDITMSG, you can edit this
file. Anything not starting with
# will be treated as your commit message.
After you have done writing the commit message, exit the insert mode, save the
file and quilt. This commit will be done.
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