A brief summary of how to read and write excel files using Pandas package.

First we need to install pandas and pre-requisite:

pip install pandas
pip install openpyxl  # in order to read xlsx files
pip install xlrd

Read xlsx files

Note that in order to read xlsx files, we need to install openpyxl and use it like this:

import pandas as pd

df = pd.read_excel('test.xlsx', sheet_name=0, engine='openpyxl')

For param sheet_name, either the literal sheet name or the sheet name is okay. sheet_name=0 means to read the 1st sheet.

Convert text in each cell to string type

When the sheet contains date and numbers, read_excel() will convert it to Timestamps and numbers by default, if we would like to convert all text to strings, we can use the dtype parameter:

df = pd.read_excel('test.xlsx', sheet_name=0, dtype=str, engine='openpyxl')

Read empty cell as empty string

It seems that pandas will by default read empty cell as NAN values. To read empty cell as empty string, use keep_default_na=False when reading excel:

df = pd.read_excel('test.xlsx', sheet_name=0, dtype=str, engine='openpyxl', keep_default_na=False)

Or after reading the sheet, use fillna() to replace the nan values with empty string:

df = pd.read_excel('test.xlsx', sheet_name=0, dtype=str, engine='openpyxl').fillna('')

Convert panda data frame to numpy array

Use to_numpy():

df = pd.read_excel('test.xlsx', sheet_name=0, dtype=str, engine='openpyxl').fillna('')
data = df.to_numpy()  # data is now numpy array

Convert list to excel files

To convert a list of list (each sublist has the same number of elements) to excel files, use to_excel():

import pandas as pd

my_list = [[1, 2, 3], [4, 5, 6]]
df = pd.DataFrame(my_list)

df.to_excel('my_list.xlsx')

To remove row index, use index=False:

df.to_excel('my_list.xlsx', index=False)

To add header for each column, we can provide a list of strings for each column using header parameter.

import  pandas  as  pd
my_list  =  [[1,  2,  3],  [4,  5,  6]]
df  =  pd.DataFrame(my_list)

header = ['c1', 'c2', 'c3']
df.to_excel('my_list.xlsx', header=header)

Refs